How many more people vote because they get to show off their status with “I voted” stickers? Because they get free stuff? When will someone use county level voting data with exogenous variation in distance from “I voted” sticker manufacturing to figure this out? (Half joking).
How many fewer people would vote if it were forbidden to post a selfie with an “I voted” sticker?
How many fewer people would vote if it were forbidden to post anything at all about it on social media? What about if we were forbidden from discussing whether we voted or not and from asking others if they voted? What if additionally all voting was online and no one would ever see you stand in line at a voting location or drop off a ballot?
It’s all related to signaling of course. In fact, there is already some research on these issues.